SCIENTIFIC publications The Utah Array has been featured in many prominent research papers.

The result of your research.

Blackrock electrodes have been instrumental in hundreds of publications spanning many fields of research. From peripheral nerve stimulation to optogenetic studies in the cortex, the Utah Array electrode family has proven indispensable for ephys research.

Human research

  • Christensen MB, Wark HA, Hutchinson DT.A histological analysis of human median and ulnar nerves following implantation of Utah slanted electrode arrays. Biomaterials. 2016 Jan
  • Clark G.A., Wendelken S., Page D.M., Davis T., Wark H. A. C., Normann R. A., Warren D. J., Hutchinson D. T. Using multiple high-count electrode arrays in human median and ulnar nerves to 
restore sensorimotor function after previous transradial amputation of the hand. Conf Proc IEEE Eng. Biol. Soc., 1977-1980, 2014.
  • Collinger, J., Kryger, M., Solzbacher, F., (2014) “Collaborative Approach in the Development of a High Performance Brain-Computer Interfaces for a Neuroprosthetic Arm: Translational from Animal Models to Human Control” Clin Transl Sci 7(1) 52-59
  • Collinger, J. L., Wodlinger, B., Downey, J. E., Wang, W., Tyler-Kabara, E. C., Weber, D. J., … & Schwartz, A. B. (2013). High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia. The Lancet, 381(9866), 557-564.
  • Davis, T.S., Wark, H.A.C., Hutchinson, D.T., Warren, D.J., O’Neill, K. III, Schienblum, T., Clark, G.A., Normann, R.A., and Greger, B. Using a high-electrode-count intrafascicular peripheral nerve interface to restore motor control and sensory feedback in humans with transradial amputations. Journal of 
Neural Engineering. 2016 Mar 22;13(3
  • Henderson, J. M., Gilja, V., Pandarinath, C., Blabe, C., Hochberg, L. R., & Shenoy, K. V. (2013). 194 High Performance Computer Cursor Control Using Neuronal Ensemble Recordings From the Motor Cortex of a Person With ALS. Neurosurgery, 60, 184.
  • Hochberg L R et al. (2012). Reach and grasp by people with tetraplegia using a neurally controlled robotic arm. Nature, 485(7398), 372-375.
  • Hochberg L R, Serruya M D, Friehs G M, Mukand J A, Saleh M, Caplan A H, Branner A, Chen D, Penn R D and Donoghue J P. (2006). Neuronal ensemble control of by a human with tetraplegia. Nature, 442, 164-171.
  • Jarosiewicz, B., Donoghue, J., Hochberg, L., et al. (2015) “Virtual Typing by people with tetraplegia using a self-calibrating intracortical brain-computer interface” Sci Transl Med 7(313)
  • Perge, J. A., Zhang, S., Malik, W. Q., Homer, M. L., Cash, S., Friehs, G., … & Hochberg, L. R. (2014).   Reliability of directional information in unsorted spikes and local field potentials recorded in human motor cortex. Journal of Neural Engineering, 11(4), 046007.
  • Schroeder, K., Chestek, CA., (2016) “Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience” Front Neurosci 10:291
  • Simeral J D, Kim S-P, Black M J, Donoghue J P and Hochberg L R. (2011) Neural control of cursor trajectory and click by a human with tetraplegia 1000 days after implant of an intracortical microelectrode array. Journal of Neural Engineering, 8(2), 025027.
  • Warren DJ, Kellis S, Nieveen JG, Wendelken SM, Dantas H, Davis TS, Hutchinson DT, Normann RA, Clark GA, M athews VJ. Recording and Decoding for Neural Prostheses . Proceedings of the IEEE 104 (2), 374-391, 2016.

Primate Research

  • Chestek CA et al. (2011). Long-term stability of neural prosthetic control signals from silicon cortical arrays in rhesus macaque motor cortex. Journal of Neural Engineering, 8(4), 045005.
  • Ledbetter N.M., Ethier C., Oby E.R., Hiatt S.D., Wilder A.M., Ko J.H., Agnew S.P., Miller L.E., Clark 
A. Intrafascicular stimulation of monkey arm nerves evokes coordinated grasp and sensory 
responses. [Epub: 2012 Oct 17] J Neurophysiol.. 109(2): 580-590, 2013. PMID: 15218935
  • Normann RA. (2007). Technology insight: future neuroprosthetic therapies for disorders of the nervous system. Nat Clin Pract Neurol, 3(8), 444-452.
  • Nicolelis M A et al. (2003). Chronic, multisite, multielectrode recordings in macaque monkeys. Prof Natl Acad Sci, 100(19), 11041-6.
  • Nordhausen C T, Maynard E M and Normann R A. (1996). Single unit recording capabilities of a 100 microelectrode array. Brain Reserve, 726(1-2), 129-140.
  • Philip, B., Rao, N., Donoghue, J., (2013) “Simultaneous Reconstruction of Continuous Hand Movements from Primary Motor and Posterior Parietal Cortex” Exp Berain Res. 225(3) 361-375
  • Suminski, AJ., Mardoum, P., Hatsopoulos, NG., (2015) “Temporal evolution of both premotor and motor cortical tuning properties that reflect changes in biomechanics” J Neurophysiol 113(7)

Rodent Research

  • Mathews KS, Wark HA, Normann RA.Assessment of rat sciatic nerve function following acute implantation of high density Utah slanted electrode array (25 electrodes/mm(2) ) based on neural recordings and evoked muscle activity. Muscle Nerve. 2014
  • Ward et al, “Toward a comparison of microelectrodes for acute and chronic recordings”  Brain Research 1282, pg. 183-200, 2009

Feline/ Peripheral Nerve Research

  • Branner A, Stein RB, Normann RA.Selective stimulation of cat sciatic nerve using an array of varying-length microelectrodes. J Neurophysiol. 2001 Apr; 85(4):1585-94.
  • Butson, C.R., Miller, I.O., Normann, R.A., Clark, G.A. Selective neural activation in a histologically-derived model of peripheral nerve. Neural Eng. 8 (3):036009, 2011. Epub 2011 Apr 11
  • Clark G.A., Ledbetter N.M., WarrenD.J. Harrison R.R. Recording sensory and motor information from peripheral nerves with Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays . Conf Proc IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc., 
4641-4644, 2011
  • Christensen MB, Pearce SM, Ledbetter NM, Warren DJ, Clark GA, Tresco PA.The foreign body response to the Utah Slant Electrode Array in the cat sciatic nerve. Acta Biomater. 2014
  • Dowden, B.R., Frankel, M.A., Normann, R.A., Clark, G.A. Non-invasive method for selection of electrodes and stimulus parameters for FES applications with intrafascicular arrays. J. Neural Eng. 9 :016006, 2012. Epub: 12/17/2011. DOI: S1741-2560(12)99799-7 [pii] 10.1088/1741-2560/9/1/016006
  • Dowden BR, Wark HA, Normann RA. Muscle-selective block using intrafascicular high-frequency alternating current. Muscle Nerve. 2010 Sep; 42(3):339-47.
  • Dowden B.R., Wilder A.M., Hiatt S.D., Normann R.A., Clark G.A., Brown N.A.T.. Selective and graded recruitment of cat hamstring muscles. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering 17 (6):545-552, 2009. PMID: 19696002
  • Frankel MA, Mathews VJ, Clark GA, Normann RA, Meek SG. Control of Dynamic Limb Motion Using Fatig ue-Resistant Asynchronous Intrafascicular Multi-Electrode Stimulation. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 13 September 2016
  • Frankel, M.A., Dowden, B.R., Mathews, V.J., Normann, R.A., Clark, G.A., Meek, S.G. multiple-input single-output closed-loop isometric force control using asynchronous intrafascicular multi-electrode stimulation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering 19 (3):325-32, 2011
  • McDonnall D., Clark G.A., Normann R. Interleaved, multisite electrical stimulation of cat sciatic nerve produces fatigue-resistant, ripple-free motor responses. IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng., 12 , 208-215, 2004. PMID: 15218935.
  • McDonnall D., Clark G.A., Normann R. Selective motor unit recruitment via intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation. C J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 82 , 599-609, 2004. PMID: 15523517.
  • Nordhausen C T, Maynard E M and Normann R A 1996 Single unit recording capabilities of a 100 microelectrode array Brain Res. 726 129–40
  • Normann, R.A., Dowden, B.R., Frankel, M.A., Wilder, A.M., Hiatt, S.D., Ledbetter, N.M., Warren, D.J., Clark,G.A. Coordinated, multi-joint, fatigue-resistant feline stance produced by Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays in hind limb nerves. Neural Eng., 9(2): 026019, 2012. DOI: 10.1088/1741-2560/9/2/026019
  • Normann RA. Technology insight: future neuroprosthetic therapies for disorders of the nervous system. Nat Clin Pract Neurol. 2007; 3(8): 444-52.
  • Normann R.A., McDonnall D., Clark G.A., Stein R.B., Branner A. Physiological activation of the hind limb muscles of the anesthetized cat using the Utah Slanted Electrode Array. 2005 IEEE International Join t Conference on Neural Networks, Jul; 5: 3101-3108, 2005Sharma, A. Rieth, L. Tathireddy, P., Harrison, R., Oppermann, H., Klein, M., Topper, M., Jung, R., Normann, R.A., Clark, G.A., Solzbacher, F. Long term in vitro functional stability and recording longevity of fully integrated wireless neural interfaces based on Utah Slant Electrode Array, NeuralEng. 
8 (4):045004,2011



Underlying biocompatibility principles; not all studies performed using UEA. Use to justify claims in device catalog.

  • Christensen, MB., Wark, HA., Hutchinson, DT., (2016) “A histological analysis of human median and ulnar nerves following implantation of Utah slanted electrode arrays” Biomaterials 77:235-42
  • Jorfi, M., Skousen, J., Weder, C., Capadona, J., (2015) “Progress towards Biocompatible Intracortical Microelectrodes for Neural Interfacing Applications” J Neural Eng 12(1)
  • Hsu, J., Tathiredy, P., Rieth, L., Normann, R., Solzbacher, F., “Characterization of a SiCx:H thin films as an encapsulation material for integrated silicon based neural interface devices” Thin Solid Films (516) 34-41
  • Negi, S., Bhandari, R., Solzbacher, F., (2010) “In vitro comparison of sputtered iridium oxide and platinum coated neural implantable microelectrode arrays” Biomed Mater 5(1)
  • Nolta, N., Christensen, M., Crane, P., Skousen, J., Tresco, P., (2015) “BBB leakage, astrogliosis and tissue loss correlate with silicon microelectrode array recording performance” Biomaterials (53) 853-762
  • Polikov, V., Tresco, P., Reichert, W., (2005), “Response of brain tissue to chronically implanted neural electrodes” Jour of Neuro Methods (148) 1-18
  • Sharma A, Rieth L, Tathireddy P, Harrison R, Solzbacher F. Long term in vitro stability of fully integrated wireless neural interfaces based on Utah slant electrode array. Appl Phys Lett. 2010 Feb 15; 96(7):73702.
  • Ward, M., Rajdev, P., Ellison, C., Irazoqui, P., (2009) “Toward a comparison of microelectrodes for acute and chronic recordings” Brain Research (1282) 183-200
  • Wark, HA., Matthews, KS., Norman, RA., Fernandez, E., (2014) “Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve” J Neural Eng 11(4)
  • Xie, X., Rieth, L., Williams, L., Negi, S., Bhandari, R., Caldwell, R., Sharma, R., Tathireddy, P., Solzbacher, F., (2014) “Long-term reliability of Al2O3 and Parylene C bilayer encapsulated Utah electrode array based neural interfaces for chronic implantation” J Neural Eng. 11(2)

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